Hamilton Earspool

Ground Stone Ear Spool / 34Lf40 – 692 (written by Alyxandra Stanco)

Among the artifacts found at the Spiro Mounds site in Spiro, Oklahoma was a group of earspools. An earspool is a circular object that adorns extended ear holes, much like a modern day earring, and is decorated with different designs. According to Sievert (2011:105), earspools can be made of various types of material that include stone, copper, wood, ceramic and shell. During the 1930s, the WPA excavated the Spiro Mounds and uncovered a variety of objects that included these earspools.


This artifact is a non-perforated, pulley-shaped earspool that measures 3 ½ cm in diameter and 7/8 cm  thick. This earspool does not have a center hole and is made of fine gray sandstone, according to Merriam (2004:138). A light copper covering is on its surface. There are 18 protruding knobs that decorate the surface of the earspool, though it looks like it has been reconstructed where a few of the knobs had been rubbed off. There is a rim around the edge of the earspool before the decorated knobs begin. The back of the earspool is quite smaller than the front.

Due to the high theft rates from the period before the WPA excavations took place, many of the earspools within the collection, including this particular earspool, have no match to complete the set. It is unlike the rest of the earspools in this collection. This earspool is very large and the knobs decorating its surface set it apart.

Earspools were widely used by the people of the Spiro Mounds and are depicted in engraved shell pieces, according to Sievert (2011:109). The stone material used to create this earspool was common to southeastern Oklahoma at the time and easily obtained by the people of Spiro. The region was abundant with lithic resources. After rough shaping, the material was finely ground and polished. After creating the shape of the earspool, the surface was covered with a copper coating.

The size and shape of this particular earspool may have been related to the status of whoever wore it within the community. The object was used as an ear decoration and likely had a ceremonial function. According to Brown, (1996:568) these types of ear spool were found only in a few graves at the Spiro Mounds site. This probably indicates that ear spools were only considered appropriate adornment for certain individuals.  This earspool may have been worn by high-ranking, elite members of the community. Chiefs or other high-positioning inhabitants would most likely wear these earspools as a sign of high status. The smaller earspools were most likely for those who were lower in rank.


Ax Fragment

Monolithic Ax Fragment – 34Lf40/1578 (written by Laurel Lamb)

It is clear that this artifact is some type of weapon.  However, due to severe fragmentation, it is somewhat difficult to interpret exactly what kind of weapon it is.  Originally excavated by the Works Progress Administration from the Great Mortuary in Craig Mound the artifact was first identified simply as a mace, while James Brown (1996:480) classifies it as a monolithic ax-form mace fragment.


The broken edges on all four sides of the artifact support this theory because the ax-forms have separate blades and shafts, while the blades and shafts of a regular mace are combined.  The longest and least fragmented edge protruding from the main body of the artifact was probably the blade, while one of the other fragmented edges was the shaft used to hold the ax.  This exemplifies instances when there is not much left of an artifact, so artifact comparisons and imagination are needed to complete what little is left.  This ax is either made of greenstone or shale (Brown 1996:480).  It is six inches long and four inches wide from the inside curve to the blade.

Since major portions of this artifact are missing, it is difficult to establish how much this artifact was used.  The more worn parts of the ax are, the higher chance they were used for utilitarian purposes, while a less worn ax would indicate a more special function.  It would be easy to assume this ax fragment had a primarily utilitarian function, but there were few axes found at Craig Mound that had much wear on them.  Brown (1996:477) also notes the axes’ “delicateness of form and the exotic of soft material.” Their lack of wear, exoticness of material, and their location in Craig Mound, a site full of high-status burial materials, tells another story of a more symbolic and ceremonial function for this ax.

One possible ceremonial aspect of monolithic axes at Spiro might have centered around political power and warfare.  Successes in warfare were a source of great honor and prestige for Mississippian cultures.  Since weaponry would be needed to achieve such ambitions, a special emphasis was most likely placed on extravagant, exotic symbolic weaponry.  This weaponry would not have necessarily been used in battle, but on special occasions (Sievert 2011:97

More on the Spiro Lace

Lace textile – 34Lf40/1266 (written by Louisa Nash)

(Compact Plain Twining with bands of Bobbin Lace Openwork)

The Works Project Administration (WPA) uncovered this textile fragment in Craig Mound during their excavations at the Spiro Mounds Site. It was found on August 5, 1937. The excellent preservation conditions at Craig Mound have enabled archaeologists to study different styles and manufacturing techniques of textiles.

Spiro "lace" attached to yellowed matboard
Spiro “lace” attached to yellowed matboard

This lace textile fragment is 43 centimeters long and 16 centimeters in width. The two darker horizontal lines on the fabric are a textile type called compact plain twining, defined as “a fabric structure in which one set of active elements (yarns) spiral turn about each other, enclosing successive elements of the other passive set in each turn” (Kuttruff 1993:130).  The lines of compact plain twining run the length of the textile and measure about 4 millimeters in width (Brown 1996:624). The wider, horizontal bands that are about 5 centimeters in width and contain the circular holes are a type of textile called openwork that was produced by the techniques of braiding or plaiting and bobbin lace work. On the textile, the bands of compact plain twining bind together the bands of openwork. The use of bobbins in making this fabric allowed each fine, individual thread to be kept in order and moved by the weaver. The bobbin lace openwork is considered a decorative element (King and Gardner 1981) and is a very refined method of fabric manufacture (Brown 1996).  In the bands of openwork, there are two different styles of circles: one is just a circular hole and the other one is a circular hole with an ‘x’ or cross shape in the center. These circles are about 1 centimeter or less in diameter.

The lace textile is black and charred (Gardner 1980:72). It is now in a clear UF3 Plexiglas mount that protects it from ultraviolet light and handling while allowing it to remain visible. It remains glued to a now yellowed mat board that has not been removed because the fabric is too brittle to attempt to take away the glue and mat board from it (Gardner 1980). Since the textile is charred, it is impossible to determine its original color. Shades of red were most commonly found dyed on Spiro textiles, followed by black, brown, yellow, and gray (Brown 1996).

Textiles were used by people at Spiro in a variety of ways. Sacks and baskets acted as containers (Brown 1996:620). Blankets or capes were also found in Craig Mound, along with skirts, kilts, belts, and sashes, all of which were worn around the waists of both men and women. Headbands have also been found at Spiro; the remains of one were found still attached to a skull. However, items in the category of fine cloth, such as this lace textile are not associated with a particular garment type or function. Most of the fabrics found in Craig Mound were folded when they were deposited in the mound. Conservators, such as H. M. Trowbridge (1938), worked after excavation to unfold and preserve the fabrics.

Analysis of textiles found at Spiro reveals that the principal plant fibers used in textile manufacture were canebrake, paw paw, milkweed, and beargrass (Sibley and Jakes 1986). Milkweed was likely the plant chosen for making intricate fabrics like this lace textile. Milkweed fibers are not very coarse, and so they are better suited to forming fine threads and cords. Scholars have determined that people at Spiro would cover the surface of the plant fibers with animal furs or feathers to make their textiles feel softer (Sibley and Jakes 1986).

Textiles are symbolic because they communicate information such as identity and social standing visually (Kuttruff 1993:126). Since this lace textile is a fine cloth, it could have been associated with leaders or prominent members of the community at Spiro. Similar fabrics have been uncovered in burials at a Mississippian site in Etowah, Georgia, and the manufacture of this textile style at Spiro could indicate its broader cultural ties (Brown 1996).

Crockett Curvilinear Incised Pottery Bowl

Pottery Bowl (Crockett Curvilinear Incised) – 34Lf40/845 (written by Louisa Nash)

This pottery bowl is 13.5 centimeters in diameter and about 10 centimeters in height. Engraved spirals decorate this vessel and lines curve around its body and rim; punctation also occurs near the engraved spirals on the body. The base of the bowl is rounded, and the overall thickness of the vessel is about 5 to 6 millimeters. With no evidence of charring, this bowl does not appear to have been heavily used for cooking.


Pottery is composed of clay and temper. Based on ethnohistoric analogy, women at Spiro likely made the ceramics. Archaeologists have found that most ceramics from Spiro were made with clay that was fine grained (Sievert 2011:29). The temper of this bowl is likely a combination of grog (crushed pieces of pottery), grit, and possibly small fragments of crushed bone (Brown 1996:358). Temper strengthens a vessel, preventing it from cracking during the firing process and during general use.

This bowl was made by a process called coiling (Sahm and Jelks 1962). Rolls of clay are first made by moving the clay horizontally on a flat surface or by moving clay between the hands (Rye 1981:67). The length of coils formed for making pottery is generally about 10 centimeters to 1 meter. Coils are placed on top of one another to give the vessel its shape, and then they are scraped and smoothed out (Rye 1981:67).

The fully-shaped vessel is then fired. The people at Spiro would have used open firing techniques. Potters would have controlled the rate of heating, the maximum temperature, and to some degree, the amount of air that the baking pottery vessels would have received (Rye 1981:97). Pottery is fired to give vessels the desired characteristics of hardness, porosity, and stability under many different physical and chemical conditions (Rye 1981:97).

The decorative style is classified as Crockett Curvilinear Incised, which is characterized by curvilinear motifs, such as scroll designs and spirals (Sahm and Jelks 1962). This particular bowl has an interlocking scroll motif that also includes doubly entwined spirals (Brown 1996:359). This style of pottery was made at Spiro from about A.D. 1100-1250 (Brown 1996:169).

The spiral and scroll motifs that appear on ceramic vessels at Spiro are believed to reflect wider Mississippian symbolism (Galloway 1989). The image of a spiral can relate to forms of organization and to movement. Ethnographic accounts show that several Southeastern tribes moved in a spiral around a central fire during dances and ceremonies. Dances involving the spiral motion were performed counterclockwise, which was the direction that people believed snakes coiled and was considered to be opposite to the movements of the sun (Galloway 1989:72). The imagery of the sun and serpent, which a spiral design might represent, also is indicative of the Underworld and Upper world in Mississippian mythology. Spiral designs, such as the one seen on this engraved bowl, might also represent the end of a whelk shell (Sievert 2011:32). These shells were important goods traded from the Gulf and were frequently crafted into items such as engraved shell cups, gorgets, and inlays.

Shell Fragment

Engraved Shell Cup – 34Lf40/1490 (written by Alyxandra Stanco)

This portion of an engraved shell cup is one of the many pieces that come from Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma. An engraved shell cup is a large shell that is used as a drinking vessel and is decorated with icons and figures. This particular piece is an off-white color, it is only a portion of a whole shell cup and 14 centimeters in length.  The inside of the piece is a pinkish-white color that is characteristic of conch shells.

Engraved shell from Spiro

Engraved shell cups were created by making cuts on the top and down the body of the columella, which is a column-like structure that rests of the top of a conch shell.  This produced a suitable drinking vessel, which was then engraved with different iconographic designs and figures. This particular piece is engraved with feathers lining the outside portion and then a petaloid motif surrounding the figure that is most likely on the missing conch pieces. According to Reilly (2007:45), the petaloid motif gets its name from its resemblance to the petal-shaped leaves that are seen on flowers. He argues that the petaloid motif that surrounds objects and figures identifies their location as celestial. The semilunar eye within each petaloid may indicate that this scene refers to the Pawnee Morning Star ceremony (Reilly 2007:45). The Pawnee belong to the Caddoan linguistic group to which the inhabitants of Spiro also probably belonged. The ceremony refers to Morning Star, who travelled through the celestial realms to defeat guardian star beasts and to reach the female Evening Star. It is possible that the engravings on the shell cup illustrate this story.

Because this artifact’s petaloid motif can be interpreted as celestial, this artifact might have been included in religious contexts such as ceremonies or rituals. According to Brown (1996: 417), shell cups have been used during rituals to consume the “black drink”, which might have been used to cure spiritual or physical ailments.

This piece of engraved shell, once part of a whole drinking vessel, is now at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. Researchers or visitors to the museum collections area can view this artifact in conjunction with other materials found at this site. By studying artifacts like this, archaeologists can begin to determine what life was like for the inhabitants of the Spiro Mound site.

Stone Earspool

Earspool – 34Lf40/555 (written by Laurel Lamb)

This artifact is a perforated pulley-shaped earspool with a carved hole in the center (Brown 1996:564).  A variety of different types of earspools can be found at the archaeological collection at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, as well as many others in Spiro collections around the country.  The variety of types and sheer amount of ear ornaments in existence support the idea that they were far from rare in Caddoan society.  In fact, there is evidence of earspool usage across the Eastern Woodlands region during the Mississippian period (Brown 1996:563).


This particular earspool was made either from fine-grained siltstone or sandstone, though earspools were also made from other materials, such as wood and clay.  Siltstone and sandstone are durable material, which is one reason why many earspools, such as this one, are still in such good condition (Sievert 2011:107).  Often copper plates originally covered the front of earspools.  Though none of the earspools at the Sam Noble Museum collection still have their copper plate covers, some do have leftover copper residue on them.

Despite its remarkable two and a half inch diameter, this earspool was actually able to be worn on people’s ears.  The outer and inner flanges, which are the front and back sides of the earspool respectively, are separated by a carved out core area in between them.  So, despite the large diameter of this artifact’s flanges, the diameter of the core was not as large.  Appearances can be deceiving.  However, it still would have been an amazing feat to be able to stretch an earlobe enough for this object to fit.  Other evidence that earspools such as this one were actually worn lies on various pictorial decorations.  Warriors with perforated pulley-shaped earspools can be seen on both decorated shell cups and copper plates (Brown 1996:561).

A cross within a circle is one of the most common decorations on earspools like this one (Brown 1996:566).  In fact, it is a very common symbol found on a variety of different Spiro artifacts.  Though the cross is not one of the most elaborate symbols found on artifacts, the symbolism behind it is nonetheless very significant for an understanding of Spiroan spiritual beliefs.  This significance lies with F. Kent Reilly’s (2004:127-128) explanation of the Mississippian belief of a three level universe: the Above World, the Middle World, and the Beneath World.  The Middle World, home to humans, was oriented by the cardinal and semi-cardinal directions.  Residing in the Above World and Under World, various deities, such as a female lunar deity and a solar deity, were associated with specific cardinal directions.  The earspool’s three parallel lines forming the cross perhaps signifies these three worlds connection with the cardinal directions.  This connection might be of even greater importance since the earspool was excavated from the Great Mortuary mound, a place where death provoked thoughts about the other worlds in the Mississippian universe.


Spatulate Celt – 34Lf53/002 (written by Alyxandra Stanco)

A variety of stone artifacts were found during the 1936 WPA excavations at the Spiro Mounds site. Among them is this celt. A celt is a long ax-like object that would have been hafted and sometimes used for digging. This celt is 23cm long and 9cm wide and is 2.5cm thick. It is probably made of white chert. Hamilton (1952:44) describes the celt as having been ground and polished until there was a glass-like finish.


This artifact is known as a spatulate celt, or ceremonial spud. The spatulate celt is typically flat with a rounded head and rectangular poll ends. The poll is the end of the celt that is held. The flat-flared form has a flattened end and a rectangular head. The bell-shaped form is named for its unique shape. It is bell-shaped and round and has concave edges. Lastly, the union form is a chipped flint form with s-shaped edges.

There has been debate about the function of the celt form. According to Sievert (2011:97), celts fall into two categories: utilitarian celts or ceremonial celts. Utilitarian celts were used for everyday tasks that might have included digging. Celts might have been useful for making small trenches for water or other resources and were used as axes that went into the ground. Brown (1996:477) refers to the celt as an ax form. He also indicated there may have been a ceremonial use for celts.