Ground Stone Ear Spool / 34Lf40 – 692 (written by Alyxandra Stanco)
Among the artifacts found at the Spiro Mounds site in Spiro, Oklahoma was a group of earspools. An earspool is a circular object that adorns extended ear holes, much like a modern day earring, and is decorated with different designs. According to Sievert (2011:105), earspools can be made of various types of material that include stone, copper, wood, ceramic and shell. During the 1930s, the WPA excavated the Spiro Mounds and uncovered a variety of objects that included these earspools.
This artifact is a non-perforated, pulley-shaped earspool that measures 3 ½ cm in diameter and 7/8 cm thick. This earspool does not have a center hole and is made of fine gray sandstone, according to Merriam (2004:138). A light copper covering is on its surface. There are 18 protruding knobs that decorate the surface of the earspool, though it looks like it has been reconstructed where a few of the knobs had been rubbed off. There is a rim around the edge of the earspool before the decorated knobs begin. The back of the earspool is quite smaller than the front.
Due to the high theft rates from the period before the WPA excavations took place, many of the earspools within the collection, including this particular earspool, have no match to complete the set. It is unlike the rest of the earspools in this collection. This earspool is very large and the knobs decorating its surface set it apart.
Earspools were widely used by the people of the Spiro Mounds and are depicted in engraved shell pieces, according to Sievert (2011:109). The stone material used to create this earspool was common to southeastern Oklahoma at the time and easily obtained by the people of Spiro. The region was abundant with lithic resources. After rough shaping, the material was finely ground and polished. After creating the shape of the earspool, the surface was covered with a copper coating.
The size and shape of this particular earspool may have been related to the status of whoever wore it within the community. The object was used as an ear decoration and likely had a ceremonial function. According to Brown, (1996:568) these types of ear spool were found only in a few graves at the Spiro Mounds site. This probably indicates that ear spools were only considered appropriate adornment for certain individuals. This earspool may have been worn by high-ranking, elite members of the community. Chiefs or other high-positioning inhabitants would most likely wear these earspools as a sign of high status. The smaller earspools were most likely for those who were lower in rank.