Collection Storage and Organization

Savannah Miller, Anthropology Undergraduate, University of Oklahoma.

The practice of archaeology generates a huge number of artifacts, big and small, rare and commonplace.  All of these artifacts need to be stored and cared for so they are available to future generations. But when a single excavation can yield hundreds, or even thousands of artifacts, organization becomes a challenge. 

Many of the archaeological collections at the Sam Nobel Museum of Natural History (SNOMNH) are from several decades ago, when the standards for curation were very different. The earliest archaeological collections were acquired through Works Progress Administration (WPA) projects in the 1930s-40s.  The WPA was a national program begun during the Great Depression to provide work for the many unemployed Americans.  Public works projects were begun all over the country, and Oklahoma was one of the first states to use the WPA to begin archaeological excavations. These projects generated a lot of information about Oklahoma’s past, but they also generated a huge number of artifacts.  After being boxed up, many of these collections have remained just as they were in the 1930s. Many of them even include the original field notes, now old enough to warrant their own place in a museum. 

Field notes from an archeological site excavated by the WPA

Back then, we didn’t have the foresight to think about archival attributes (i.e., acid-free) or how to manage them.  Methods of organization and storage weren’t standardized, and each museum or curator had their own system, leading to problems like damaged artifacts and difficulty locating particular objects.   

A box of broken pottery found on a shelf in the museum. Storing them this way makes them susceptible to breakage, not to mention how difficult it would be to find a specific piece of pottery

Since then, museums have been working hard to update their collections with improved standards of curation with better methods for organization and preservation. Today, collections are stored in special acid-free boxes, paper, and sealable bags, and organized by their unique number. 

Now you may be asking yourself – “Why is it taking so long? It’s 2020!”  The problem is that not only collections from the WPA need to be redone, but as collection standards continue to improve, every single collection must be reviewed, which means literally millions of artifacts. And on top of that, more new artifacts are being accepted (see previous blog posts on the “Curation Crisis” – https://samnoblearchaeology.wordpress.com/2020/02/12/the-curation-crisis/).    

Updating older systems takes time. All of these artifacts need to be sorted, bagged, assigned their own unique number, tagged, and cataloged.  This purpose of this updated system is to make it easier to find a specific item and helps museums to keep an accurate account of everything they have.   

At times, all of this work may seem daunting, but it’s important to make sure that these artifacts are well cared for so that they are available to future generations.  This internship has shown me how important it is to preserve artifacts, and therefore preserve a piece of history. There is a lot of work to be done, but it is work that makes the difference between saving finite resources that tell us about our past or letting them disappear.  Interning at the museum has allowed me to be a part of work that will be truly meaningful to archaeologists and curators in the future.

  

References

Bustard, Wendy. “Archeological Curation in the 21st Century Or, Making Sure the Roof Doesn’t Blow Off.” CRM 5 (2000). 

Hammerstedt, Scott, Amanda Regnier, and Patrick Livingood. “The Last of WPA Archaeology in Oklahoma: The Clement and McDonald Sites”, In Shovel Ready: Archaeology and Roosevelt’s New Deal for America, 110–26. Tuscaloosa, Al: University of Alabama Press, 2013. 

The Hugh Byler Collection

Nathan Gossard, Anthropology Undergraduate

As the Legacy Collections Intern in the Archaeology department at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, one has the opportunity of working with many different collections of artifacts. I had the fortune to start my internship working with an amazing lithic collection graciously donated by Patti Hansen, and her sister Toni Good from their father, Hugh Vernon Byler Jr. This lithic collection is comprised of over 400 projectile points, along with other lithic tools, such as scrapers, axes, knives and other various bifaces.

Mr. Byler was born and raised in Oklahoma City, graduated from Classen High School in 1932, and obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in General Science from the University of Oklahoma in 1939. In 1941, Hugh married Jeanne Castleberry and they had two daughters, which they raised in Oklahoma City. Hugh Byler Jr. passed away in December 2009, while living in Perryton, Texas. Not only did he have a love of archaeology, he also loved art, especially the symphony, fine art museums, theatre, the Kirkpatrick Center, the Town Hall, the National Cowboy Hall of Fame and the Western Heritage Center (Oklahoman, 2009). Byler’s collection was primarily found on his lake house here in Oklahoma, from the 1960s through the 1980s. His lake property was owned by the US Army Corps of Engineers. They agreed to take the collection and it is being held in trust on their behalf.

In my opinion, this lithic collection is one of the greatest put together, although I do not have much experience when it comes to lithic collections or in archaeology altogether (I am just an intern). When I found out that I would be responsible for processing this collection, I was very excited. I have quite a few favorite artifacts from this collection. The stone knife is pretty amazing, and it fits in your hand perfectly. There is a projectile point made out of a stone that looks like fire with a beautiful sunburst color. The largest lithic is a white spear point that is about 13 cm long. Toni Good displayed her father’s arrowhead collection at the annual Museum of the Plains’ Stone Age Fair in Perryton, TX, sponsored by Harold Courson.

figure 1 Nate's post
Figure 1: Stone Hand Knife
Figure 2: Arrowhead Projectile Point
Figure 3: Spear Projectile Point (White)

Mr. Byler did most of his artifact collecting in the 1960s through 1980s. I am not sure what the federal or state laws were 40 plus years ago, but most of them are pretty clear today. I want to make sure that people are not violating any laws when they happen upon a Native American artifact in the state of Oklahoma. A person cannot excavate, remove or damage any artifact found on public or Indian lands. If convicted, a person can be fined up to $10,000 and imprisoned for up to a year. (Arrowheads, n.d.) However, if you are interested in archaeology and helping to save Oklahoma’s heritage, I would like to encourage you to Oklahoma Anthropological Society. You can access all of the wonderful information on the society at the following website: https://okanthropologicalsociety.org/. Please take some time to research the following websites as well for The Oklahoma Public Archaeology Network and the Oklahoma Archaeological Survey: http://www.ou.edu/okpan & http://www.ou.edu/archsurvey

Thanks to the donation of Patti and Toni, we now have the ability to preserve this wonderful collection of their father, Hugh Byler Jr. The collection has much research potential for future undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Oklahoma, and we will be able to look back on this history at our leisure. While labeling, identifying and sorting these artifacts, I could not help but look back in time on the people that made these stone tools. It was fun to try and think about the woman, man or child that carved these points and how they lived. I feel that these artifacts were made with love and I hope that the museum employees and future spectators of this collection can love them as much as Hugh Vernon Byler Jr. did.

References

The Oklahoman (2009, December 23). Obituary of Hugh Vernon Byler, J

Arrowheads (n.d.). Collecting Laws. Retrieved https://arrowheads.com/index.php/collecting-laws/306-collectionlaws

The Oklahoma Archaeology Conference

Savannah Miller, Anthropology Undergraduate, University of Oklahoma.

The third bi-annual Oklahoma Archaeology Conference took place in Tulsa March 5-7at the Helmerich Center for American Research at the University of Tulsa.  This conference provided a great opportunity for professional archaeologists and students to present their recent research, while also allowing them to connect with the larger archaeological community in Oklahoma.     

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Automatisch generierte Beschreibung
Conference Program Cover

Presentations covered a variety of topics with researchers studying paleolithic sites in the Aegean Sea to the historic Greenwood District in Tulsa.  

Posters sharing recent work lining the Frances W. O’Hornett Great Hall

Given that Oklahoma is home to thirty-nine tribal nations, it was good to see that not only were tribal members in attendance but that their perspectives and presence was welcomed by the larger community. The conference even had a specific forum titled “Shared Stewardship: Creating a Culture of Collaboration with Descendant Communities” which offered members from various OK tribes a platform to discuss their views on arch research and how such research relates to their respective communities, as well as how archaeologists can work with descendant communities in ways that focus on open communication and respect.   

            The conference also included a variety of workshops on an array of subjects in archaeology, including flintknapping, a tour of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, and writing grant proposals. 

Pit firing pottery as part of the traditional Caddo pottery demonstration, with artist Chase Kahwinhut Earles

The University of Arkansas demonstrated their 3D virtual reality model of the Spiro Ceremonial Center from the tesseract development team (more information at https://news.uark.edu/articles/48070/explore-the-spiro-mounds-with-u-of-a-s-archaeology-3d-virtual-reality-team-april-26-27).  This model creates an interactive experience where participants can take part in possible ceremonies conducted at the end of the occupation of the Spiro site.   

A still from the virtual reality model of the Spiro ceremonies

Overall, this conference was an excellent opportunity for members of the Oklahoma archaeological community to come together and share their work and learn about other projects happening in the field.  The next Oklahoma Archaeology Conference is planned for 2022, with updates available on OKPAN.org 

Transitioning and Keeping Track

Over the summer of 2019, I had the privilege of working as an intern at the National Guard Memorial Museum. This opportunity had resulted from a combination of circumstances, the most important being that my father had served with the Oklahoma National Guard for several years. He believed it was his calling, and he did his job well. He earned many awards, including the Soldier of the Cycle at basic training and the Bronze Star Medal during his deployment to Afghanistan. In August of 2011, I lost my dad to a roadside bomb while his team was responding to an emergency call from another unit. It’s been a long and hard road for my family since he died. As a Gold Star kid, there are many scholarship opportunities for me, without which I may not have been able to attend the University of Oklahoma. One of these scholarship opportunities is a grant from the National Guard Education Foundation (NGEF), which is also in charge of the National Guard Memorial Museum (NGMM), which has an incredible museum internship program. You can find the link to their website here. Over those three months, I worked with Anne Armstrong (NGMM director and curator) on an array of projects and learned the ins and outs of running the museum as well as the structure of the National Guard itself, where the museum falls, and why its role is important. I also received training in how to properly handle the artifacts within their collections, as well as how to package and store them safely. Being a museum dedicated to preserving and educating the public on the nearly 400-year history of the National Guard, many of the artifacts I worked with pre-dated the establishment of the United States of America and required special packaging and care in order to preserve them. I became very familiar with unbuffered tissue paper and Hollinger boxes! My job mainly consisted of furthering their efforts to digitize their collection by accessioning it into PastPerfect, a digital museum collections program, and I was even able to use the knowledge I gained to assist in the accreditation process, an achievement recognized by the American Alliance of Museums (AAM). You can find out more about this process on their webpage, located.

My summer internship and all I had learned there at the NGMM fueled my excitement about museums, and I hoped to continue learning about them when I returned home for my junior year of college here at the University of Oklahoma. With this in mind, I applied to the NAGPRA internship program in the archaeology department at the Sam Noble Museum. As an anthropology major, I have learned so much about the history of the field of archaeology. The study of archaeology has contributed much to our understanding of the past, but also has a history of obtaining artifacts illegally. Since I first learned about the NAGPRA program and how it provides Native American tribes with a legal means to have their ancestors returned, I knew I wanted to one day work to help right, or at least reverse, these wrongdoing of the past. We have a responsibility as a museum to preserve history, but not at the expense of the tribes. Having this opportunity is extremely humbling, and I’m grateful to have the chance to combine a passion for museums with a desire to help. Not only this, but this NAGPRA internship is very different than what I became used to over the summer on Capitol Hill.kmj.png

Firstly, there are two major differences between the SNMONH and the NGMM, and that is the environment. The NGMM is a relatively small, privately funded museum located in an office building on Capitol Hill. This places many limitations on the collection management, especially when it comes to storage and temperature maintenance. Once during a heat wave, the temperature in the auxiliary storage room reached upwards of 95 degrees, and even the building manager could not help. In this case, we removed artifacts that we considered at-risk of damage, and prayed that the temperatures wouldn’t rise any more. On the flip side, calls often had to be made to the building manager to raise the temperature on the museum floor, which often dropped below 60 degrees. Being a museum in an office building isn’t the most ideal situation, but the NGMM does very well with what they’ve got. Obviously, the SNMONH is a large, university funded museum located conveniently on campus, and doesn’t have to deal with these kinds of problems. Of course, it does get a little cold in collections, but the artifacts are rarely at risk of damage under any circumstance. Aside from the environment, my role here at the SNMONH took a bit of getting used to as opposed to my role at the NGMM. Over the summer I was the sole intern, but here in archaeology collections I get to work with four other interns. For this reason, my job is focused on just a small part of the whole accessioning process. Once sites have been assessed and updated in the database, my job is to create and ensure that each artifact gets a proper tag, and its box is labelled with the correct information when it goes back on the shelf. I work with both NAGPRA restricted collections as well as archaeology collections, and it often takes me several days to tag each item within a collection. This may not see like a very important job, but I assure you that it is just as important as any other. Knowing where each item is and knowing that we will be able to locate it again in the future is extremely important, especially when it comes to NAGPRA collections that will be returned to their associated tribes to be repatriated.klm

In addition to this, I have been learning the ropes of the database in order to speed up the accessioning process (so I can get to my tagging!) and working on a few final projects. The biggest project I am working on in collaboration with a fellow intern to digitize the exhibit book, which will serve a similar purpose to collections, allowing us to identify and keep track of all of the items on permanent display in the Hall of the People of Oklahoma.

The Curation Crisis

One of the biggest problems museums are facing, both in the state of Oklahoma and across the country, is the lack of storage space for new collections. Designated repositories like the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History are encouraged to take in new material when archaeologists survey and excavate sites, but most museums and repositories are understaffed and have collections dating back many decades. Archaeological material in a state can only go to its designated state repositories and cannot go to storage outside of its respective state, which can be an issue if a state only has one or two repositories total. As stated in the National Park Service information on the curation crisis, archaeologists are required to find repositories for all of the artifacts and documents from their excavations to apply for state or federal permits. Organizing and cataloging collections can take weeks or months, and if someone leaves in the middle of cataloguing a collection, it means at best the next person to work on the collection will have to start from the beginning and take time away from other collections that need to be processed. At worst, the collection is put away and all knowledge of it is eventually lost. New collections come in every day, adding to the growing number of boxes in storage, and if there are only a few people working through them at a time, when some collections can take months to process, they will not be able to keep up with all of the new and legacy materials.

The solutions to lack of storage space are simple in theory, though executing them would likely be much more difficult. Archaeologists cannot simply stop excavating sites while collections are processed, so something like another repository or bringing in more people to work in collections would be more plausible. However, it would take significant funding and either state or federal approval to have a new museum repository or proper storage facility built. Bringing in interns or volunteers would require more outreach and generating interest in state history. This is the most likely solution, and though it would likely take years of work to start making visible progress, it can be done.

“NPS Archeology Program: Managing Archeological Collections.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, https://www.nps.gov/archeology/collections/intro_cur04.htm.

 

Processing Sites

IMG_3652Throughout my almost 9 months of working for SNOMNH, I have come in contact with many enlightening experiences in the field of museum and curation studies. I’ve learned how to properly house a pot, how to prevent chipping of stone tools, and even learned that glass essentially melts over time! However, learning how to process a site has been one of the most daunting anthropological journeys I’ve been on.

What is “processing” a site you ask, and what does is entail? Well, it is the process of accounting for a site’s entire collection of artifacts as well as its documents and ensuring all the work completed on a collection is fully documented, with the ultimate goal to ensure all notes and paperwork are properly documented before it is placed on its permanent location on the shelf. For many of the sites I worked on this semester include human remains and associated and unassocicated funerary objects. My work in properly processing projects ensures that all information, human remains, and cultural objects are identified within the museum so they can be properly and respectably returned to their affiliated Native Tribe. The end goal is to produce a collection ready for permanent shelving or repatriation.

My job this semester was to assist the Collections Manger in writing and standardizing the 32 steps to processing a site – 39 if the site involves NAGPRA items. Organized in a methodical checklist, these steps tediously review every part of the site and encapsulate all available knowledge of the collection. More specifically, they allow us to get a feel for the site we’re working with, its purpose, its provenance, and what information exists to support it. We use multiple databases of stored site information to do most of this work, on top of physically examining the site’s artifacts and/or remains – analyzing their conditions and revitalizing their storage when necessary.

Processing a site may seem very technical and difficult – and that’s because it is. However, it acts as a highly important step in the bigger picture. What is the bigger picture? Well I’m elated you asked. The bigger picture is to eventually give these sites a rest, either on our shelves or in the grounds of the tribes they belong to. Many of the sites that take top priority at SNOMNH are those affiliated with NAGPRA law, or the  . This law, if you aren’t familiar with it, defends and addresses the rights of Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations and lineal descendants of Native American remains and artifacts. It requires federal agencies and museums to account for any Native American remain or artifact they possess, communicate with the objects’ affiliated tribe(s) and inevitably repatriate it back to them. With this information, it makes sense as to why completing a site to its entirety plays a big part in the adherence to this law. By recognizing and prioritizing the Native American remains we do have, we are putting these tribes, who have historically been severely discriminated against and forgotten about, at our highest point of interest. By repatriating what we do have, we are able to form and build upon relationships with these tribes and, above all, reunite them with their ancestors and sacred objects that were taken from them.

Lastly, I wanted to touch on how learning to process sites has proved very valuable to my education and future career abilities. Throughout processing, I have become very familiar with the Archaeology Department’s physical and digital information organization (our digital database, made with FileMakerPro, I have come to know best). Making my way through hundreds of type-written letters, aged maps and old field notes, I have developed an eye for the important bits that give context to my mission. I’ve come to know my way around checklists and digital flow forms as well. The detail-oriented mindset that this process takes has also grown my administrative capabilities, challenging me to double-check and verify every detail of the site at hand; making sure its information is as accurate and thorough as we can possibly include, and overall ensuring that we are doing our best work here at SNOMNH.

In sum, processing a site may not be the most glamorous, eye-catching subject of the entire process, but it definitely deserves its own recognition. Its tedious nature has put me to the test, but out of it has grown parts of me that I needed to improve upon. In the end, it is getting one of the most important jobs done – giving a site comprehensive completion, and eventually providing closure to the tribes and peoples whom these site remains belong.

The Puzzle of Assessment Reports

There are a lot of steps that go into processing a collection. I would like to share my experience with one of them- assessments. Assessment is the process of evaluating the condition of the collection and the artifacts contained within. Assessing collections can be a tedious affair. At the best of times, it’s a smooth and formulaic process. You look at an artifact, pass silent judgments about whoever assembled the collection before you, circle a Y or a N in the entry for the stability of the artifact in the assessment inventory, initial, date, and move on to the next artifact. At the worst of times, assessing can make you tear your hair out. Boxes of random stones and pottery sherds, missing artifacts, charred materials hidden at the bottom of paper bags that just won’t come out no matter how much you try. It can drive you up the wall, yet, even with all the maddening problems, I still love assessing. I love the puzzle of it. When you assess, you’re presented with a chaotic box of the unknown. There’s just something so satisfying unraveling that box’s mystery. About following the clues left for you and slowly piecing together what artifact is what, and my what artifacts there are! For every box of stones, or pottery pieces, there are incredibly interesting artifacts as well. Each one with a story behind it, needing to be examined and processed. There’s a mystery in those artifacts as well, an unknown story that I only get to glance at briefly. Although, depending on the collection, that story can take a backseat to the problems at hand, especially when the collection itself presents some problems.

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You can encounter all kinds of strange things while assessing. For instance, I was recently assessing a new collection when I opened a box to find that, much to my surprise, the box just contained nothing but loose stones. Nothing in the box was bagged or organized in any way, just a bunch of rocks at the bottom of a box. Now usually this isn’t too bad of a thing to find. After all most artifacts are marked in some way to indicate which artifact is which, and as it would happen all these stones were marked! From there the next steps were to match each stone with its entry in the inventory. Only the thing is, when I went to match them, almost none of them corresponded with their entry in the inventory. Now usually this isn’t a problem, I could go in and enter all the stones as new database entries and move on. The problem is that there was the same amount of stones as there were entries for them. Which lead me to conclude that the stones were in the report, just not well-organized. So, I had to sort each stone into several possible candidates in the report and make a note of each one. What’s even worse is that when I had to do the exact same thing with hundreds of pottery sherds. The thing is though, I really enjoyed working through all those problems. The joy I got from figuring out that assessment is the same that I get from solving a good puzzle.

Assessing can be frustrating, it can be tedious, but it can also be an incredibly enjoyable activity. In my time at the museum, I have assessed quite a few collections and each time I discover something new. From interesting artifacts to better ways of processing collections, assessing always yields something interesting for me to uncover. So, I look forward to the next collection I get to process and assess. I know that it will have its own challenges and complications, but I also know that there will be another puzzle for me to solve and new interesting things for me to discover.

Gaining Valuable Experience

This spring as the NAGPRA intern at the Sam Noble Museum I had the wonderful opportunity to cover some new ground while still honing familiar skills. Since I’ve been interning here for several semesters now (see my previous blog posts here and here), I’ve had time to learn and get some experience with many aspects of museum collection management. However, this semester has given me the opportunity to take a deeper dive into NAGPRA (the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) and gain the practical knowledge and experience that has become essential for working in the modern museum world.
Working with NAGPRA has been a learning experience, and the opportunity to see and be involved in all the many little steps that come together to make the entire process of implementing this important law has greatly enhanced my understanding from both the assigned readings for my internship and from my classes. I’ve spent most of this semester focused on a few aspects of the larger picture, working to organize and assess three or four collections of artifacts. The NAGPRA internship has struck me as being a very detail oriented job, with a high responsibility on all of us to work diligently and get all the little steps right. A lot of my job this semester has been assessments, which is the process of going through collections, box by box, and matching up the artifacts in the box to what’s listed in the catalog, and reorganize as I go. Gradually through these steps we get a better picture of what’s present in the collection, where it is, and what needs further work, including moving along the steps toward repatriation under NAGPRA.
After my two semesters as a Legacy intern, dealing with not only older material but the general incoming collections, this internship was still a whole new learning opportunity, since I could dive into what is an absolutely vital aspect of museum work. Knowledge of NAGPRA and experience working on NAGPRA projects and collections is essential in the job market for museums, and this internship has grown my knowledge and skills immensely. It’s been very helpful for me that both of these internship opportunities have been available, so that I could branch out into a somewhat different area of knowledge while still building on my previous experience. I would recommend either of these great opportunities to anyone interested in museum studies or anthropology/archaeology, and to anyone interested in a deeper dive or a wider breadth of experience, I’d suggest both.

A World of Opportunity

This semester, as part of my internship at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, I got the chance to attend the Oklahoma Museum Association Conference in Edmond, Oklahoma during the second to last week of September. Since this was my second semester as legacy collections intern my boss, Susie Fishman-Armstrong, encouraged me to check out the Oklahoma Museum Association and their events, including their annual conference. I looked into it and found what sounded like a great chance to network and learn from others with more and varied experience in the museum world. At the conference I met museum professionals from all over the state and many different types of institutions, including science museums, children’s museums, art museums, historic homes, local historical societies, and one blues music museum. Through talking with others about the methods and especially the challenges of their museum I got to see a wider view than usual of the scope of a museum. The sessions were also interesting and varied, as I attended panels and discussions about topics falling under many subjects that I don’t normally interact with in my role as an intern in the collections, or “back of the house”, including museum education and programming. Workshops were also offered, which provided some hands-on learning and practical examples, and I had some time to meet vendors during the networking breaks, which was interesting and informative to see what sort of products and services are frequently needed by museum professionals, and to learn a bit more about conferences from the people who frequent them.
For a week or two before the conference I was a bit apprehensive, and worried whether I would be able to be engaged in discussions or really understand the sessions after only one semester at a museum. However, if anything this just went to show how thorough and diverse of training I’ve gotten from this internship, as after just over a semester I had pretty much all the bases covered for laws and standards, roles in the museum, collection processing, and physical care of artifacts. There is only so much I could have learned in a classroom or through my own research, and the chance to have gotten actual experience has been phenomenal. Additionally, this conference was just one of the many opportunities I’ve had through this internship to meet people actually working in museums and to learn from them, through tours of other collections within the Sam Noble, the volunteer Brown Bag Lunch talks, and events such as this. The learning opportunities have multiplied ten times over through getting involved here at the Sam Noble, and I highly encourage anyone to intern or volunteer who gets the chance. Even if you don’t jump right in and start with a large conference, there are so many experiences to learn from within our very own museum for both people who want to go on to make it a career as I do and for anyone with curiosity and the desire to learn.

-Ella Crenshaw

My Internship at the Museum and the History of NAGPRA

This fall semester of my junior year I was given the opportunity to work as an archaeology intern working on cultural material subject to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). As someone who used to be a socio-cultural anthropology major, my transition into archaeology has been an exciting learning experience. The ability to work as an intern at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History has been a large part of propelling me towards that goal. Working with NAGPRA especially was a great aid in expanding my archaeological knowledge and experience. NAGPRA is especially significant within archaeology because it shapes how archaeologists interact with Native American remains and sacred objects and their descendants. The act allows a process to take place for these remains and objects to be returned in a timely manner to ensure the tribes can return them to their rightful place.
Working with NAGPRA has been a very eye-opening experience for me. What I knew prior was limited to the single slide I saw in my Intro to Archaeology class last year. Since I began interning, I have learned far more about the profound impact NAGPRA has had on the Native American and Archaeology community and what needed to happen for NAGPRA to be enacted. In an interview between Suzan Shown Harjo and Robert Preucel “An Archaeology of NAGPRA: A Conversation with Suzan Shown Harjo” it details the planning and strategic steps that took place to ensure NAGPRA could happen. In this interview, Susan Harjo (a native Oklahoman) expounded on how she worked with the initiative that led to the creation of NAGPRA. What began as a horrifying experience at the Museum of the American Indian in 1965, generated a drive in Harjo to gather Native American groups to create a framework for the ethical treatment of Native American human remains and sacred material in museum collections and archaeological practice. With the help of the National Congress of the American Indians she was able to lobby for the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, National Museum of American Indian, and pave the way for NAGPRA. Those first steps that led to NAGPRA began a new era in archaeology within the U.S. that has caused much progress to take place. This interview emphasized the extreme importance of returning Native American individuals and associated items back to their descendants to repair the hurt that’s been caused and to foster new relationships between Native American groups, museums, and archaeologists. Being able to help in this process is something I am extremely proud of and fortunate to do.
Overall this internship has brought more insight to me than I could describe in one blog post. It has given me first-hand experience on museum protocol and a bigger picture of the national role museums play in archaeology. I recommend this internship for anyone with a thirst for knowledge and curiosity of the behind the scenes museum archaeology work.
-Helen Sanders